关于露卡素

斯坦福大学研究证明:露卡素减肥法最为有效,最为健康

    西木博士点评:经常有网友问我,我倡导的零饥饿减肥法和美国阿特金斯的吃肉减肥法有什么关系,后者是否有健康隐患。答案非常简单:第一,我倡导的零饥饿减肥法是对阿特金斯吃肉减肥法的发展和优化(更加有效和健康),即除了允许吃肉外,我强调饭前喝水,蔬菜生吃,用亚麻籽油凉拌,主食用可可粉代替,饭前和运动前半小时补充左旋肉碱;两者都严格限制糖和淀粉等碳水化合物的摄入,同属于露卡素(low-carbs)减肥法。第二,包括中国和美国在内的多国实践表明,露卡素减肥法是所有减肥法中最为有效的方法,也是最为健康的方法。其中,由美国政府资助的斯坦福大学A TO Z减肥研究项目最为著名,非常具有代表性,并且经得起时间的考验。

    2007年,一项由美国政府资助两百万美金的重要减肥研究成果发表在美国医学学会杂志(Journal of American Medical Association)上。这就是著名的斯坦福大学A TO Z 减重研究项目,它比较了四种不同的减肥计划:

    1、 Atkins diet(A)阿特金斯减肥计划:前三个月每天摄入碳水化合物不超过20克,以后每天不超过50克,蛋白质和脂肪的摄入不受限制,包括红肉在内的肉类可以随意吃(零饥饿)。(奥斯卡影后芮妮•齐薇格曾经采用这种饮食计划,迅速减重7公斤;好莱坞大导演凯文•史密斯采用此法,成功瘦掉27公斤。)

    2、 Traditional diet(T)传统减肥计划:热量的摄入受到严格限制(节食),在总热量摄入中,碳水化合物占55%-60%,脂肪不超过30%,饱和脂肪低于10%,坚持定期运动。(这种方法强调“管住嘴,迈开腿”,政府、医学界和营养学家至今推荐这种主流减肥法。)

    3、 Ornish diet(O):脂肪摄入不超过总热量的10%(素食),每天进行冥想和运动。(史蒂夫•乔布斯曾经采用这种饮食计划,特别是在患上胰岛细胞瘤以后。)

    4、 Zone diet(Z):碳水化合物摄入占总热量40%,蛋白质占30%,脂肪占30%。(詹妮弗•安妮斯顿曾经采用这种减肥计划。)

一年后,参试人员的平均体重变化和体检指标结果如下:

    上述数据表明,在所有减肥法中,尽管阿特金斯(露卡素)减肥法没有要求运动,它减重最多(平均近10磅),有效程度为其他减肥法的2-3倍(平均3-5磅)。同时,这种减肥法也最为健康:甘油三酯下降最多,高密度脂蛋白HDL(“好胆固醇”)上升最多,血压下降最多,而这一切都有利于心脑血管健康。事实上,HDL的显著下降可以准确预测心脏病的发生,特别是对于女性,而碳水化合物摄入的增加必然会造成HDL的下降。

    斯坦福大学的研究人员总结说:“曾经有许多人担心露卡素减肥法会升高血脂和损害心血管,因为这种方法鼓励摄入大量脂肪,包括饱和脂肪。但是,这种担心在最近的减肥计划临床实验中被证明是多余的。最新的一系列实验一致表明,包括本A TO Z研究项目,甘油三酯、高密度脂蛋白、血压和胰岛素抵抗等指标要么没有显著变化,要么更有利于露卡素饮食实验组。”

    领导这次A TO Z研究项目的是Christopher Gardner,斯坦福大学预防研究中心营养研究室主任。Gardner做过一次题为“减肥计划之战:有谁赢得胜利”(The Battle of Diets: Is Anyone Winning?)的演讲,大家现在可以在YouTube观看。他说,他曾经是一位素食主义者,吃素长达25年之久。他之所以做这项研究,是因为他担心像阿特金斯这样包含大量肉类和饱和脂肪的饮食,可能会非常危险。当他演示以肉类为主的阿特金斯(露卡素)饮食胜出的结果时,他形容他在吞服一粒苦药!


资料来源:

www.youtube.com/watch?v=eREuZEdMAVo

http://nutrition.stanford.edu/projects/az.html

http://nutrition.stanford.edu/documents/AZ_press.pdf

http://nutrition.stanford.edu/documents/AZ_abstract.pdf

    Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish and LEARN Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk Factors Among Overweight Premenopausal WomenThe A to Z Weight Loss Study: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Christopher D. Gardner, PhD; Alexandre Kiazand, MD; Sofiya Alhassan, PhD; Soowon Kim, PhD; Randall S.Stafford, MD, PhD; Raymond R. Balise, PhD; Helena C. Kraemer, PhD; Abby C. King, PhD

    Context  Popular diets, particularly those low in carbohydrates, have challenged current recommendations advising a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet for weight loss. Potential benefits and risks have not been tested adequately.

    Objective To compare 4 weight-loss diets representing a spectrum of low to high carbohydrate intake for effectson weight loss and related metabolic variables.

    Design, Setting, and Participants Twelve-month randomized trial conducted in the United States from February2003 to October 2005 among 311 free-living, overweight/obese (body mass index, 27-40) nondiabetic,premenopausal women.

    Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to follow the Atkins (n = 77), Zone (n = 79), LEARN (n = 79),or Ornish (n = 76) diets and received weekly instruction for 2 months, then an additional 10-month follow-up.

    Main Outcome Measures Weight loss at 12 months was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included lipid profile (low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, andtriglyceride levels), percentage of body fat, waist-hip ratio, fasting insulin and glucose levels, and blood pressure.Outcomes were assessed at months 0, 2, 6, and 12. The Tukey studentized range test was used to adjust for multiple testing.

    Results Weight loss was greater for women in the Atkins diet group compared with the other diet groups at 12months, and mean 12-month weigh loss was significantly different between the Atkins and Zone diets (P<.05).Mean 12-month weight loss was as follows: Atkins, –4.7 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], –6.3 to –3.1 kg), Zone,–1.6 kg (95% CI, –2.8 to –0.4 kg), LEARN, –2.6 kg (–3.8 to –1.3 kg), and Ornish –2.2 (–3.6 to –0.8 kg). Weightloss was not statistically different among the Zone, LEARN, and Ornish groups. At 12 months, secondary outcomes for the Atkins group were comparable with or more favorable than the other diet groups.

    Conclusions In this study, premenopausal overweight and obese women assigned to follow the Atkins diet, which had the lowest carbohydrate intake, lost more weight and experienced more favorable overall metabolic effects at 12 months than women assigned to follow the Zone, Ornish, or LEARN diets. While questions remain about the long-term effects and mechanisms, a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet may be considered a feasible alternative recommendation for weight loss.

    Clinical Trial registry clinical trials.gov, NCT00079573

JAMA. 2007;297:969-977

转自西木博士博文http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_49ba101f0102e0qp.html




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